Hallazgos macroscópicos y microscópicos en el sistema respiratorio en autopsias de pacientes con covid-19

Macroscopic and microscopic findings in the respiratory system in patients with covid-19

Contenido principal del artículo

Laura Marcela Mendoza Carmona
Ariel Camilo Marrugo Ortiz
Sebastian David Payares Florez

Resumen




Introducción: desde finales del 2019, el mundo se ha visto hostigado por la aparición de un nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) en Wuhan, China, que se extendió globalmente y es el agente etiológico de la enfermedad conocida como COVID-19. Esta enfermedad tiene tres etapas consecutivas de gravedad y está asociada con el desarrollo del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA). Objetivo: describir las principales lesiones pulmonares, macroscópicas y microscópicas, asociadas con la infección por SARS-CoV-2, con base en hallazgos de autopsias realizadas a pacientes fallecidos por Covid-19. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Google Scholar, Scielo, Clinical Key y MedRxiv que incluyó artículos publicados entre el 1 de enero del 2020 y el 31 de diciembre de 2020. Resultados: el principal hallazgo macroscópico descrito fue la presencia de pulmones pesados además de superficies con áreas azul-rojizas. Se encontró en algunos casos traqueo-bronquitis y tráqueas levemente eritematosas. En hallazgos microscópicos el patrón de lesión pulmonar más común fue el daño alveolar difuso (DAD) presentado en el 88% de los casos. Se encontraron cambios en los capilares constituyendo 3 características histológicas: Lesión endotelial, alteración de las membranas de células endoteliales y angiogénesis intususceptiva. Conclusión: la gravedad de los hallazgos está determinada por la edad del paciente y el padecimiento de diversas comorbilidades/afecciones sobre todo relacionadas con el sistema respiratorio y cardiovascular, estos factores influyen en el desarrollo de hallazgos heterogéneos tanto macroscópicos como microscópicos.




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Detalles del artículo

Biografía del autor/a (VER)

Laura Marcela Mendoza Carmona, Universidad de Cartagena

Estudiante facultad de medicina Universidad de Cartagena.

Ariel Camilo Marrugo Ortiz, Universidad de Cartagena

Estudiante de la facultad de medicina Universidad de Cartagena. 

Sebastian David Payares Florez, Universidad de Cartagena

Estudiante de la facultad de medicina Universidad de Cartagena.

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Referencias (VER)

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