Enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en obstetricia

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Édgar Rivas Perdomo
José Antonio Rojas Súarez

Resumen

Introducción: la Enfermedad Tromboembólica Venosa (ETV) incluyen: trombosis venosa superficial, venosa profunda, de las venas ováricas, pélvica séptica y el trombo embolismo pulmonar.
Objetivo: realizar revisión sobre factores de riesgo, diagnóstico, manejo y tratamiento de ETV en pacientes obstétricas.
Metodología: revisión temática que incluye estudios clínicos y epidemiológicos, revisiones sistemáticas, temáticas, consensos, reuniones de expertos, guías clínicas y protocolos sobre ETV en el embarazo. Revisadas las bases de datos PubMed, ScienceDirect, OvidSP y Scielo, durante los años 2000 y 2011, en los idiomas inglés y español.
Resultados: la búsqueda arrojó 214 estudios. 76 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y fueron revisados. Existe una buena aproximación a los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de ETV en mujeres gestantes. Existe un test clínico para identificar mujeres con riesgo de TVP. Existen estudios de imagen que ofrecen diferentes porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad. La gammagrafía por perfusión es una buena y segura herramienta en la mujer gestante. El diagnóstico temprano debe ser seguido de una temprana y adecuada acción terapéutica. HBPM ha reemplazado el uso de la HNF.
Conclusiones: se debe identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo en toda la población gestante, de acuerdo a los hallazgos; realizar medidas terapéuticas generales o farmacológicas. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(1):124-135

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