Virus chikungunya: ¿qué sabemos de esta arbovirosis?

Contenido principal del artículo

Margarita María Ochoa Díaz
Yéssika De León Benito Revollo
Gerson Rodríguez Quintero
Doris Esther Gómez Camargo

Resumen

Introducción: para Colombia el virus Chikungunya (CHIKV) se constituye en un potencial problema de salud pública, debido a que en el país tanto en ámbitos rurales como urbanos es endémica la presencia del mosquito A. Aegypti, vector de la infección, el mismo del virus del dengue.
Objetivo: realizar revisión temática referente al CHIKV y al síndrome febril que
ocasiona. 
Metodología: revisión bibliográfica descriptiva, con búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, OvidSP y Medline; incluyendo artículos de revisión, reportes de casos y estudios experimentales.
Resultados: se encontraron 107 artículos, de los cuales se utilizaron 78 documentos a conveniencia: revisiones, informes de investigación, reportes de casos, boletines e 
informes epidemiológicos.
Conclusiones: el CHIKV es un Alphavirus con un solo serotipo identificado, una de las 29 especies pertenecientes al género Alphavirus de la familia Togaviridae. Posee dos ciclos de transmisión, uno selvático o enzoótico y otro urbano o epizoótico. El período de incubación varía entre uno y doce días. Fiebre alta, rash cutáneo y severo dolor osteoarticular, son las  características clínicas que cursan en seis días, con baja letalidad y difícil diferenciar de otras enfermedades tropicales, incluidas malaria y dengue.
En la mayoría de los casos se adquiere inmunidad permanente. El tratamiento es sintomático y no existe vacuna disponible. Las autoridades sanitarias deben fortalecer los programas de control vectorial, para hacer frente a esta enfermedad. Rev.cienc. biomed. 2014;5(2):317-328.

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