Estrés oxidativo, daño al ADN y cáncer

Contenido principal del artículo

Liseth Paola García Uribe
Johana Patricia Marquéz Lázaro
Maricela Viola Rhenals

Resumen

Introducción: el cáncer es una enfermedad multifactorial, caracterizada por el crecimiento descontrolado y disperso de células anormales. Si este crecimiento y su dispersión no son controlados oportunamente, puede resultar en metástasis lo que aumenta el riesgo de muerte. El estrés oxidativo en los últimos años se ha convertido en una diana terapéutica contra esta enfermedad, debido a que se ha evidenciado su papel importante en el proceso de la carcinogénesis, de ahí que antioxidantes y proxidantes sean potenciales agentes antitumorales administrados solos o como coadyuvantes en las quimioterapias y radioterapias.
Objetivo: revisar la implicación del estrés oxidativo en los daños al ADN y en el proceso de carcinogénesis.
Metodología: revisión temática. Se realizó búsqueda informática en inglés y español en las bases de datos ScienceDirect y Scielo entre los años 2009 a 2013. Se incluyeron estudios en humanos y animales. 150 resúmenes fueron obtenidos, 50 resúmenes fueron considerados
pertinentes. Todos los estudios fueron adquiridos en texto completo,
revisados y citados a lo largo de la presente revisión.
Resultados: el estrés oxidativo ocurre como un desbalance entre la producción de especies reactivas y el sistema antioxidante que las neutraliza. Las especies reactivas han sido implicadas en el proceso de carcinogénesis, debido a que puede mediar la activación de vías de proliferación celular e inhibir la apoptosis, además se ha demostrado
que el daño oxidativo al ADN lleva a mutaciones, favoreciendo aún más este proceso.
Conclusión: el estrés oxidativo puede ser un importante evento celular implicado en la carcinogénesis, de ahí que el uso de agentes antioxidantes y proxidantes como potenciales antitumorales constituyen una alternativa para la terapia anticancerígena, ya sean solos o como coadyuvantes. Sin embargo se requieren más estudios que permitan validar los resultados obtenidos. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(1):107-117

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