La matriz extracelular: una red dinámica implicada en la regulación de las células madre

La matriz extracelular: una red dinámica implicada en la regulación de las células madre

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Lina Lambis Anaya
Amileth Suárez Causado


Introducción: la matriz extracelular (MEC) es una red multifuncional, dinámica y compleja con propiedades biofísicas, mecánicas y bioquímicas específicas para cada tejido que, le confieren la capacidad de regular el comportamiento celular. Las células madre tienen un papel clave en el mantenimiento y regeneración tisular, se hallan en un microambiente específico, definido como nicho, en el que la MEC puede modular su proliferación, autorenovación y diferenciación.
Objetivo: resaltar la función de la MEC en la regulación del comportamiento de las células  madre y la labor de la interacción MEC-células madre en las propiedades y homeostasis del nicho en el que residen.
Materiales y métodos: búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datos: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus y Medline de artículos originales y de revisión en su mayor parte publicados entre 2008 y 2015.
Resultados: se obtuvieron 150 artículos, de los que se utilizaron 44 documentos a conveniencia incluyendo artículos de revisión y artículos originales.
Conclusión: la MEC es una red fundamental que orienta la diferenciación, proliferación y autorenovación de las células madre, al tiempo que ejerce una interacción de estas con los nichos donde residen. La función esencial de la MEC en la interrelación de las células madre con su nicho ha llevado al surgimiento de herramientas de la bioingeniería que abren posibilidades en la terapéutica, reparación y regeneración fisiológica de órganos. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(2):333-339

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