El papel de la vitamina d en la respuesta inmune y en las enfermedades alérgicas

Contenido principal del artículo

Catherine Meza Torres
Javier Marrugo Cano

Resumen

Introducción: la vitamina D es una de las moléculas más pleiotrópicas. Juega un papel
importante en el metabolismo del calcio, en la salud pulmonar y en el sistema inmune.
En estudios epidemiológicos se ha relacionado la insuficiencia de esta vitamina con el
asma y la dermatitis atópica. Así mismo, algunos estudios genéticos que incluyen hasta
el rastreo genómico han reportado asociación entre el receptor de la vitamina D (VDR)
y el asma.
Objetivo: identificar el papel de la vitamina D en la respuesta inmune y en las
enfermedades alérgicas.
Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datos PubMed,
ScienceDirect, Protein data Bank, NCBI, Blackwell Synergy Wiley Online Library.
Resultados: se selecionaron 120 articulos para la revision y se escogieron 76 articulos
completos y dos resúmenes de nuestro grupo.
Conclusión: estudios epidemiológicos y de genética han relacionado a la vitamina D
y su receptor (VDR) con el desarrollo de las enfermedades alérgicas. Esta evidencia es
extensa y en ocasiones contradictoria, la cual se podría explicar por el reclutamiento
diferencial de coactivadores del complejo VD-VDR-RXR. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los
estudios experimentales in vitro e in vivo demuestran que la vitamina D ejerce un efecto
modulador sobre diversos tipos de células del sistema inmune innato y adaptativo, así
como sobre las células involucradas en la respuesta inmune del tipo Th1, Th2, Treg y
Th17. Se concluye que esta vitamina juega un papel fundamental sobre las respuestas
inmunes innatas y adaptativas, así como en el desarrollo de las enfermedades alérgicas.
Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(2):319-332

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