Prevalencia de violencia doméstica gestacional según el ingreso económico de las naciones

Cindy Arteta Acosta, Álvaro Monterrosa Castro, Liezel Ulloque Caamaño

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32997/rcb-2016-2934

Resumen

Introducción: la violencia domestica gestacional (VDG) es una problemática sensible que amerita ser evaluada y tomada en consideración.
Objetivo: realizar síntesis de la bibliografía sobre la prevalencia de VDG e identificar distintos tipos y factores asociados según el nivel económico de los países.
Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión en estudios descriptivos y analíticos.
Búsqueda en la base de datos MEDLINE, artículos publicados entre 2010 a 2014. Se excluyeron artículos de opinión, editoriales, revisiones e informes, se identificaron los
factores asociados a VDG. Además, se presentan rangos de prevalencia por países, niveles de ingresos económicos y globales, según estudios identificados a conveniencia. 
Resultados: se identificaron 30 estudios, el 36.7% de ellos realizados en países de altos ingresos, el 63.3% en países de medianos/bajos ingreso económicos. La  violencia psicológica fue más prevalente, seguida de violencia física y sexual. Suecia tuvo menor presencia de VDG, inferior a otros países de altos o medianos/bajos ingresos. Se identificaron factores asociados a VDG: antecedente de violencia doméstica OR:11.6[8.3-
16.2], tres o más eventos estresantes en el embarazo 26.4[10.22-68.62],  permanecer soltera OR:6.6[3.3-12.8], baja educación del compañero OR: 5.7[1.4-23.4] y desempleo OR:5.1[1.7-15.9], insuficiente nivel educativo femenino OR:2.0[1.1-3.2], inadecuado control prenatal OR:3.5[1.5-8.0] y maternidad temprana OR:1.8[1.4-2.3]. Se
encontró que países de altos ingresos tenían rango de prevalencia de VDG entre 1.0-
19.1%, los de medianos/bajos: 15.0-63.1%.
Conclusión: se observaron diferentes cifras de VDG en los países, siendo estas mayores
en países de medianos/bajos ingresos. Diversos factores modificables están asociados.
Rev.cienc.biomed. 2016;7(1):80-92.


Palabras clave

Embarazo; Violencia doméstica; Mujeres embarazadas; Violencia sexual.

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