La neuroglobina y su potencial relación con la función cerebral y el sueño

Mario Eduardo Acosta Hernández, Luis Rendón Bautista, Sergio Priego Fernández, Carolina Peña Escudero, Betsy Martínez Cruz, Montserrat Melgarejo Gutiérrez, Fabio García García

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32997/rcb-2016-2857

Resumen

Introducción: el sueño es un fenómeno biológico complejo en el que participan áreas del cerebro y neurotransmisores específicos. Recientemente se describió una proteína que pertenece a la familia de las globinas, llamada neuroglobina (Ngb), que se expresa
en neuronas de los núcleos pedúnculo pontino tegmental y laterodorsal tegmental.
Ambos núcleos son responsables de generar y mantener el sueño de movimientos oculares rápidos.
Objetivo: describir los principales hallazgos respecto al papel de la Ngb en la fisiología nerviosa y su potencial rol en el ciclo vigilia/sueño.
Materiales y métodos: revisión temática a conveniencia en artículos presentes en bases de datos virtuales, se consideraron estudios en diferentes modelos animales o piezas de laboratorio.
Resultados: varios estudios señalan la importancia que tiene la Ngb en la fisiología del sueño. Se ha señalado específicamente que la privación total de sueño por 24 horas en la rata reduce el número de neuronas inmuno positivas a Ngb en los núcleos ya señalados, sugiriendo que la expresión de Ngb es dependiente de la presencia del sueño. Si bien este mecanismo no es del todo claro, podría ser regulado a través de la
vía orexinérgica, específicamente en neuronas que expresan el receptor ORX-A.
Conclusión: la Ngb tiene un papel en la fisiología del sueño y la vigilia. Entre otras observaciones se sugiere que el sueño es el promotor de la síntesis de la Ngb que será utilizada durante la vigilia. Más estudios son necesarios para precisar el papel de Ngb en la fisiología del sueño. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2016;7(2):285-295.


Palabras clave

Privación de sueño; Estrés oxidativo; Globinas, Orexina.

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