Prevalencia de violencia doméstica gestacional según el ingreso económico de las naciones

Cindy Arteta-Acosta, Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Liezel Ulloque-Caamaño

Resumen


Introducción: la violencia domestica gestacional (VDG) es una problemática sensible que amerita ser evaluada y tomada en consideración.

Objetivo: realizar síntesis de la bibliografía sobre la prevalencia de VDG e identificar distintos tipos y factores asociados según el nivel económico de los países.

Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión en estudios descriptivos y analíticos. Búsqueda en la base de datos MEDLINE, artículos publicados entre 2010 a 2014. Se excluyeron artículos de opinión, editoriales, revisiones e informes, se identificaron los factores asociados a VDG. Además, se presentan rangos de prevalencia por países, niveles de ingresos económicos y globales, según estudios identificados a conveniencia.

Resultados: se identificaron 30 estudios, el 36.7% de ellos realizados en países de altos ingresos, el 63.3% en países de medianos/bajos ingreso económicos. La violencia psicológica fue más prevalente, seguida de violencia física y sexual. Suecia tuvo menor presencia de VDG, inferior a otros países de altos o medianos/bajos ingresos. Se iden­tificaron factores asociados a VDG: antecedente de violencia doméstica OR:11.6[8.3- 16.2], tres o más eventos estresantes en el embarazo 26.4[10.22-68.62], permanecer soltera OR:6.6[3.3-12.8], baja educación del compañero OR: 5.7[1.4-23.4] y desem­pleo OR:5.1[1.7-15.9], insuficiente nivel educativo femenino OR:2.0[1.1-3.2], inade­cuado control prenatal OR:3.5[1.5-8.0] y maternidad temprana OR:1.8[1.4-2.3]. Se encontró que países de altos ingresos tenían rango de prevalencia de VDG entre 1.0- 19.1%, los de medianos/bajos: 15.0-63.1%.

Conclusión: se observaron diferentes cifras de VDG en los países, siendo estas mayores en países de medianos/bajos ingresos. Diversos factores modificables están asociados.

Rev.cienc.biomed. 2016;7(1):80-92.

PALABRAS CLAVE

Embarazo; Violencia doméstica; Mujeres embarazadas; Violencia sexual.

 

SUMMARY

Introduction: the gestational domestic violence is a sensible issue that deserves be evaluated and taken into account.

Objective: to make a synthesis of the literature about the prevalence of DVP and to identify its different types and associated factors according to the economic level of the countries.

Methods: it was carried out a review using descriptive and analytical studies. Also, it was made a search in MEDLINE database, this search was limited to articles published between 2010 and 2014. The opinion articles, editorials, reviews and case reports were excluded; the factors associated with DVP were identified. Besides, it is presented a prevalence range of the countries, their levels of economic incomes, according to stud­ies chosen by convenience.

Results: 30 studies were identified, 36.7% of them were made in countries with high risk, the other 63.3% in countries with medium/low economic incomes. The psychologi­cal violence was the most prevalent, followed by physical and sexual violence. Swe­den had less presence of VDG, lower than in other countries with high or medium/ low incomes. The factors associated with DVP were: history of domestic violence OR: 11.6[8.3-16.2], three or more stressful events during pregnancy 26.4[10.22-68.62], to remain single OR: 6.6[3.3-12.8], the low level of education of the partner OR: 5.7[1.4- 23.4], the unemployment OR:5.1[1.7-15.9], insufficient educational levels OR:2.0[1.1- 3.2], inadequate prenatal control OR:3.5[1.5-8.0], and early maternity OR:1.8[1.4- 2.3]. It was found that countries with high incomes had VDG rank of prevalence be­tween 1.0-19.1%, and medium/low with 15.0-63.1%.

Conclusion: different figures of DVP were observed in some countries, being higher in countries with medium or low incomes. Several adjustable factors are associated. Rev. cienc.biomed. 2016;7(1):80-92.

KEYWORDS

Pregnancy; Domestic violence; Pregnant women; Sexual violence.


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